1. What is demography?
Demography is the study of populations (population characteristics)
2. What is the difference between a sample and census?
A census is a survey of the entire population while a sample is a survey of a representative section of the population.
3. What is population distribution?
Where the population is located. Ex. There are more than 30 million people in Canada and more than 300 million in the USA.
Types of population distribution: Linear, Scattered and Clustered (see pics below)
4. What is population density?
How many people are in a given area. Ex. there are 9,713 per square Km.
5. What do you notice about the world's population growth?
We notice that population growth is stable (very little growth) until the 1800s when population growth takes off. Today there are over 7 billion people in the world.
6. What is the densest country in terms of population in the world? The least dense?
Macau China is the densest populated country in the world. Mongolia is the least dense.
7. What are the reasons why people live where they do?
Natural resources (water, food supply)
Natural environment (protection, clean air)
Historical reasons (people settle where other people have settled)
Economic reasons (jobs, better education opportunities)
Built environment (good transportation, good healthcare)
Social factors (peace, stable political government)
8. Why do people live where they do in Australia?
- Natural resources
- Historical reasons
- Transportation (close to water and trade with other nations)
1. What is the "fertility rate"?
Number of children per woman.
2. What is the "birth rate" and "death rate"?
Birth rate is the number of children borne per 1000 pop.
Death rate is the number of people who die each year per 1000 pop
3. What is a "natural increase" of the population?
A higher birth rate than death rate. The rate of natural increase is the death rate subtracted from the birth rate.
4. What is "net migration"?
Difference between the people leaving a country and those coming in (emigration - immigration).
5. What is a "population pyramid"?
A type of graph that gives information about the distribution of the male and female population by age group.
6. What is the difference between the population pyramid of a developing and developed country?
A developing country has a wider base and narrow top. A developed country has the opposite. If the base at the bottom is wide, this means the fertility rate is high (many children being born). The narrow top means that the death rate is high.
7. What accounts for this difference?
The fertility rate is high in developing countries because:
Kids to work on farm
Many kids die when young
Kids will take care of you in old age
The death rate is high in developing countries because:
Less ability to get food (lack of resources)
Poor sanitation (disease)
Poor regulations at work (high rate of work place deaths)
8. What is "life expectancy"?
The age at which you are expected to expire.
9. What is "literacy rate"?
The amount of people who can read.
10. What is "GDP"?
Gross Domestic Product. Amount of money made within the borders of a country.
11. What is "GNP"?
Gross National Product. Amount of money made by all NATIONALS of a country, regardless of where they live.
12. What is "GDP per capita"?
GDP per person. Average.
13. What is a "correlation"?
A correlation is a relation between two or more types of data. Example: obesity and life expectancy. This is a negative correlation. A positive correlation would be GDP per capita and life expectancy
14. What is the main idea of the section "We're all in it together" on page 39? What POV is left out?
That sometimes trade is structured in such a way that some are helped at the expense of others. Trade can and has improved the lives of many but it can also be carried out in such a way that some benefit from others' exploitation (e.g. moving production to areas that have few child labour laws so that consumer goods can be made cheaper by children). Sometimes we are not all it in together.
15. With a partner or in a group of three create a population pyramid for a developed, developing country and another you think is interesting (3 population pyramids). Explain why the population pyramid is what it is and what challenges this poses for the country and people.
Chapter 3 and 4
1. What are three types of settlement patterns? Why would people settle like this?
Linear, Clustered and Scattered
Linear: Settle in a line. Along a highway, railroad, river or subway line.
Clustered: tight groupings in an area. Living near a store, living near jobs (city), living in a village, cheaper to supply services to clusters (help the government save money -- near a hospital or school). Urbanization.
Scattered: Spread far apart. Agriculture. Farming.
2. What are the key differences between the industrial era and the new information era (pg. 67)?
- Goods (cars, steel, consumer goods)
- Everyone is under one roof
- One job for your life
- big companies
- Coding, apps, services
- Work is scattered around -- not everyone is under one roof
- Outsourcing (smaller companies doing specific jobs -- advertising is done by one company and sales is done by another and creation by another)
- Many jobs over your lifetime
- continual retraining -- continuing education
- small companies and big companies
3. What do you think are the reasons for the change in part time employment in Canada between 1955 and 1995 (pg. 68)?
There is an increase in part-time employment because:
1. The workers want part-time (they might want to also look after their children)
2. Companies might want to pay people less so they will hire them as part-time or on contract. This way the company can pay less for employment benefits (pension, and healthcare).
4. Compare the pie chart on pg. 68 with the chart below. Which do you think is correct? How would you know?
We can tell that information might be correct if:
1. Seems reasonable
2. Wikipedia is a good first stop but you should choose a REPUTABLE source (government, university sites, research institutions -- not a person's blog - example "Kalyani's labour notes on globalization")
5. What does the chart below tell you? What challenges might this pose for Canadian workers?
Temporary employment means that workers will not have job security --
1. they could be fired easily
2. they might have anxiety and depression
3. workers will have to move to find work because their job is not stable
4. it will be difficult to plan for the future
5. they could have low pay
6. easy to take advantage of temporary workers
6. What is "downsizing" and "outsourcing"? (pg. 71)
Downsizing is firing workers
Outsourcing is moving jobs to another country.
7. What are primary, secondary and tertiary industries? (pg. 75)
Primary = natural resource extraction
Secondary = manufacturing -- altering primary resources (ex. automobile production)
Tertiary = services (healthcare, bus driver)
8. What are the pros and cons of robots? (pg. 76-77)? How do the cons relate to the "Luddites" (look this up "Luddites" on the Internet)?
Pro - make things more efficient (cheaper and quicker)
Cons - people might lose jobs and the jobs that are created might not be enough or as good (e.g. some predict that almost half of the jobs in the US will become obsolete in the next 20 years -- those whose jobs are automated will still need to eat)
Luddites are a group of people who during the Industrial Revolution in England smashed machinery because they were losing their jobs and being paid low wages. In England, smashing machines became an offence punishable by death.
9. What is your impression of the paragraph on the top of page 81? What is the denotation and connotation of what this paragraph?
1. Why might "Agribusiness" not be the answer to the world's food needs? (pg. 94-96)
- Agribusiness is corporate farming that uses pesticides
- soil erosion
- lack of biodiversity -- monocrops
2. What are "terminator seeds"? Why is their use controversial? (use the Internet)
- Terminator seeds are seeds that have been genetically modified -- the seeds can be used one time only. Usually farmers can reuse seeds.
3. What problematic practices does Monsanto engage in according to the video and link below? Why would they do this and how does this relate to "agribusiness"?
Monsanto sues Sask. farmer (link)
4. What is urbanization?
The growth of cities
5. Why are people moving to urban areas?
- Schools and universities
- Closer stores, easier to get around (transportation)
- access to technology
6. What problems does this pose?
- Pollution - garbage
- Killing trees and reducing farmland
- Overcrowding (traffic, competition for jobs, high living costs)
- Community ties are not as strong
7. Look at the pictures and graphs below and answer the following questions.
a) What is a slum? (see also megacities on pg. 99)
- A slum is a house that lacks access to water, sanitation, tenure (deed), made of recycled materials
- example Brazil - FIFA world cup built stadiums that would only be used a couple of times at great cost. They used land and resources that could have helped slum dwellers.
b) What does the chart tell you about urban growth?
There is growth in very large cities. Trend toward mega-cities.
c) What do the pictures tell you about slums and what sorts of jobs people engage in who live in slums?
8. What is "globalization"? (pg. 100)
- "shrinking" of the world. Communication technology means you can talk with people all over the world. Transportation technology (airplanes, boats) means we can travel all over the world. Ex. McDonalds --- many, many countries have a McDonalds (homogenization of culture)
9. What are "transnational corporations"? (pg. 101)
A corporation that does business in a number of other countries.
1. What is an "economy"? (pg. 114)
System, Trade, Goods, services, Wealth, Resources, production, consumption
A system of production, distribution and consumption (disposal).
2. What is the "agricultural revolution"? (pg. 115)
The shift from hunting and gathering to farming.
3. What is the "Industrial revolution"? (pg. 116)
When people start to use machines (steam power). Create objects in factories.
4. What are "formal" and "informal" economic activities? (pg. 122)
Informal - black market (illegal), household production, untaxed ("under the table")
Formal -- legal, contract with an employer, taxed
1. What is an "economic system"?
2. What the the key components of an economic system? (pg. 130)
3. Who makes decisions in an economic system?
4. Describe the four types of economic systems from the textbook.
5. What are the key differences between the three types of capitalism outlined in the "forms of capitalism" handout?
6. Why do you think capitalism is called capitalism?